Large-scale statelessness can be caused by the arbitrary deprivation of nationality.  This can involve the collective withdrawal or denial of nationality to a whole population group, commonly singled out in a discriminatory manner on the basis of characteristics such as ethnicity, language or religion, but it can also impact individuals who are deprived of their nationality on arbitrary and discriminatory grounds.  In many cases, the group concerned forms a minority in the country in which they live. Sometimes they are perceived as having ties to another state, where they perhaps share common characteristics or even ancestral roots with a part of the state’s population; in other instances, the state uses the manipulation of nationality policy as a means of defining a particular national identity which excludes those who do not fit the mould.